Makumba supports mainly two query languages: the native Makumba Query Language (MQL) and the Hibernate Query Language (HQL) .


MQL was developed as a sum of the most useful aspects of OQL and HQL. As such is it based on HQL in many regards (see the reference documentation), except following:

  • it accepts boolean projections: SELECT a=1 AS col1 ... etc
  • selecting an object will lead in selecting the external form of its Makumba pointer
  • it works with Makumba DataDefinitions instead of Hibernate mappings
  • like HQL, it supports subqueries in the style of e.g. MySQL
  • since Makumba only has set (equivalent of Hibernate bag), some of the HQL constructs like indices() don't make sense.
  • some of the HQL functions are not yet implemented (e.g. current_date())

MQL Functions#

MQL provides support for functions that will translate into SQL functions. Currently, the following functions are supported:

String functions#

name argument(s) result type description
lower (str) string Converts the string argument to lower case
upper (str) string Converts the string argument to upper case
trim (str) string Remove leading trailing spaces.
ltrim (str) string Remove leading spaces.
rtrim (str) string Remove trailing spaces.
concat (str1, str2, ...) string Concatenates two or more strings
concat_ws (separator, str1, str2, ...) string Concatenates two or more string with the given separator
substring (str, position [, length]) string Takes a substring of the given string
replace (str, fromStr, toStr) string Replace occurrences of a specified string
reverse (str) string Returns the string str with the order of the characters reversed.
ascii (str) int Return numeric value of left-most character.
character_length (str) int Return number of characters in the string argument.
format (int) string Return a number formatted to specified number of decimal places

Date functions#

name argument(s) result type description
dayOfMonth (date) int Return the day of the month (0-31).
dayOfWeek (alternatively: weekday) (date) int Return the weekday index of the argument.
week (date) int Return the week number.
dayOfYear (date) int Return the day of the year (1-366).
year (date) int Return the year from the date argument.
month (date) int Return the month from the date argument.
hour (date) int Return the hour from the date argument.
minute (date) int Return the minute from the date argument.
second (date) int Return the second from the date argument.
extract (unit FROM date) int Extracts parts from the date. For example: SELECT EXTRACT(YEAR_MONTH FROM '2009-07-02 01:02:03'); -> 200907.
See the MySQL Documentation for available units.
monthName (date) string Return the name of the month.
dayName (date) string Return the name of the day.
last_day (date) string Return the name of the day.
current_date date Return the current date.
current_time date Return the current time.
current_timestamp (alternatively: now) date Return the current date and time.
dateAdd (date, int, INTERVAL unit) date Adds the amount of the second argument to the date. Example: dateAdd(now(), 2, 'hours').
Available from Makumba >= 0.9, works only for MySQL; see the MySQL Documentation for available units.
dateSub (date, int, INTERVAL unit) date Substracts the amount f the second argument from the date. See dateAdd.


Support for new functions is normally easy to add, so if you miss specific functions, please just mail the makumba developers!


Makumba supports HQL as a query language. Please check its reference documentation.

In order to use HQL in Makumba JSPs pages, the following TLD declaration should be used:

<%@taglib uri="" prefix="mak" %>

Category Documentation

Join types#

Makumba automatically creates the SQL statements from the (Object) Query Languages MQL or HQL. Doing so, it converts elements such as label.subTable to corresponding JOINs in SQL. Normally, Makumba will create default (inner) JOINs between tables. However, if the expression (label.pointerField.field) goes via a nullable pointerField, a LEFT JOIN is generated. This is the default behaviour, but can be suppressed by specifying the join type explicitly.

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« This page was last updated on April 4 2016